Nutrients are needed by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. These substances are grouped as macronutrients and micronutrients. Macronutrients are named so because they are needed to be consumed in large amounts and are primarily used to generate energy or become absorbed in tissues for growth and repair. On the other hand, micronutrients are needed in small amounts. Their roles in cellular processes are not obvious.
Macronutrients include; carbohydrate, protein, and fats. While micronutrients include minerals and vitamins. Continue reading
When not breastfeeding, certain care for the breast will include:
Avoiding nipple stimulation, wearing a snug-fitting bra, applying a breast binder, ice packs, or taking a mild analgesic for engorgement.
Usually, an engorgement clears up within 24 to 36 hours of onset. Continue reading
You may have seen in movies when a pregnant lady suddenly gasps as she’s standing and then she looks down and yells ‘ my water just broke’!. And you see fluid gushing out and down her legs. Well, that was her amniotic sac breaking. And it is okay if this happens shortly before the onset of labor. But, it becomes a problem when it happens more than 1 hr before the onset of labor- And this is called premature rupture of the membranes. Continue reading
What should you check in premature rupture of the membranes?
- Presence of a painless leakage of fluid from the vagina.
- Absence of steady labor contractions.
- Positive nitrazine test- it turns blue.
- Presence of meconium in the fluid.
- Amount, color, consistency, and odor of fluid.
- Decreased uterine size.
- Elevated temperature which may indicate infection- Monitor vital signs
- Tachycardia in the fetus, which may indicate maternal infection- Fetal monitoring is necessary.
What to do when there is a premature rupture of the membranes.
- Assist with tests to find out gestational age.
- Avoid any vaginal examinations because of the risk of infection.
- Monitor both mother and fetus for signs of infection or compromise.
- Administer antibiotics as prescribed.
Prolapsed umbilical cord is a rare condition that occurs in 1% of pregnancies. It’s a situation when the umbilical cord comes out of the uterus with or before the presenting part of the fetus. Pressure on the cord from the fetus will cause cord compression that compromises blood flow to the fetus. Continue reading
The human heart is located in the left side of the mediastinum, and it has 3 layers. The epicardium, the myocardium, and the endocardium. Continue reading
Body fluid is made up of water and dissolved substances, and Water is the single largest fluid constituent of the body. Continue reading
When a substance is dissolved in a solution, it becomes a solute. Now when that solute spreads in the solution, that act is called diffusion. So diffused in this case means it spread out in the solution. Eg. Sugar cube in water. Sugar is a substance that dissolves in water( the solution) and it becomes a sugar solute. It then spreads in the water. That means it spreads from an area of more concentration to an area of lesser concentration. More concentration is the sugar cube, less is the water before being mixed evenly with the substance/sugar. Continue reading
When changes or alterations occur in hydrostatic pressure, oncotic pressure, capillary permeability, and a lymphatic obstruction,- edema will occur. So what is edema? Continue reading