So what are cranial nerves? Cranial nerves are nerves that arise directly from the brain, that includes the brainstem. They relay information between the brain and parts of the body. Mainly to and from regions of the head and neck.
There are 12 cranial nerves, and each is paired and present on both sides of the brain.
10 pairs of the cranial nerves emerge from the brainstem, which is the lower part of the brain. While the remaining 2 pairs- olfactory nerves and optic nerves emerge from the cerebrum or forebrain.
Cranial nerves are either sensory, motor or both. The sensory innervation includes ‘general’ sensation such as temperature and touch and ‘special’ innervation such as balance, vision, hearing, smell, and taste.- From this explanation, you can tell the type of cranial nerve.